The History of the Coin Flip – Heads or Tails?

coin flip

Which team goes first in a race? Who picks tonight’s film? Who washes the dishes?

You can settle almost anything with a coin flip, no matter how big, or how small. But what is the true meaning of such action and what is its significance throughout history? We’re taking a look through the years…

The History of the Coin Flip

The act of flipping a coin to determine one of two possible outcomes has actually been around for centuries. In ancient Rome, it has been seen as a game of chance referred to as ‘Heads or Ships’, because of the two-headed god design and the ship’s prow that appeared on early coinage.

Later in Middle-aged Britain, the game was known as ‘Cross or Pile’ due to the ‘heads’ side featuring a cross and the ‘tails’ side being referred to as the ‘pile’ because of its indentations from the pressing process.

Throughout history though, no matter what it’s name or reasoning, it has continued to be used for the same thing. To settle a dispute, make a decision or end a rivalry.


Why ‘Heads or Tails’?

Today, the coin toss is widely used as a form of making a decision between two equally possible answers. One person flips the coin in the air, while the other person (or one of the two participants) shouts heads or tails.

‘Heads’ refers to the side of the coin that features a portrait, or head, while ‘Tails’ refers to the opposite side. This is not because it features any form of tail, but because it is the opposite of heads.

So, when trying to determine who goes first, or who gets to choose a film, if the person calls out ‘heads’ and the heads side of the coin lands face up, then this person is the winner. But if it lands on ‘tails’, the other person wins. Simple.


When is the Coin Toss Used?

The coin toss has become a part of everyday life, with many using it to simply decide between trivial differences. However, it has also been used in far more significant and well-known ways such as to decide who will kick off a football match, and more significantly, to determine the outcome of the 1968 European Championships 0-0 finish, before the penalty shootout was introduced.


Is the Coin Toss Reliable?

There are many people that now claim that the coin toss is not a fair way of determining an outcome. Maybe they lost their most recent coin flip? Either way, they insist that coin designs of today often have specific advantages, or disadvantages, depending on the geometry and the differences in weight between the two sides.

Some would argue that the ‘heads’ side of the coin is the more favourable option, because of its thicker and more prominent design, while others state that it’s all determine by the way the coin is allowed to land. On the floor, you add the randomness element, while in a hand you have control and weight plays a factor.

There’s also the very rare, but possible, situation where the coin lands on its side and does not fall to show heads or tails. This occurred in 2013 during an American Football game between the Detroit Lions and the Philadelphia Eagles. As in this case and with most, if a coin lands on its side a second flip is to take place.


Considering the act of flipping a coin is such a simple thing, a surprising level of drama and upset can occur from that 50/50 landing position. In a coin toss, are you a ‘heads’ or ‘tails’ kind of person? Let us know on Facebook